is the imaging of blood vessels using contrast media / x-ray dye injected into the blood stream of the arteries so the vessels can be viewed using x-ray (fluoroscopy). Renal angiography is the study of the blood vessels to the kidneys.
is the technique of mechanically widening narrowed or obstructed arteries. This is done by putting a guide wire with a collapsed balloon on it, into the narrowed location and then inflating the balloon. The balloon forces expansion of the plaque deposits and surrounding muscle wall, opening up the blood vessel and thereby improving bloodflow. A stent (a fine mesh stainless steel tube) may be inserted at the same time as ballooning, which helps to ensure the narrowing remains open.
Charles Dotter developed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) to treat vascular artery disease in 1964. In 1974 Andreas Gruntzig revolutionized the technique by developing a soft, flexible, double-lumen balloon catheter for use in coronary arteries. Since then PTA has evolved greatly and is used widely as a vascular interventional technique to treat narrowings found in arteries.